Foothill Boulevard. Provides investigation, forensic and litigation support to individuals, companies and firms. Our services include ink age, handwriting, questioned documents, crime scene evaluation, ink analysis, age determination, printer and toner analysis, authenticity, fraud investigations, fingerprints, review of expert witness findings, Daubert and cold case re-investigations. We would be pleased to discuss the aspects of your case with you. In that role, managed up to scientists, technicians, and support staff in the areas of document analysis, handwriting, fingerprints, trace evidence, audio and video analysis, photography, toolmarks, computer evidence and counterfeit analysis. Worked on behalf of the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During that time worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e. John Demanjuk, a.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses
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Document dating based on correlation analysis manuscript samples were removed from forensic expert reports produced along the years ranging from
Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.
Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written. When conducting examinations, forensic document examiners must have known specimens to which they compare the material in question. These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine.
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Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination.
There are four major approaches (each approach is a group of methods) used for dating inks on documents: 1. Ink Aging Approach. Various methods have been.
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Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
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The need to answer questions about documents has existed since the earliest days of civilisation! Documents include not only those of the familiar paper form but may include other items and materials that can bear information. Forensic document examination started with experts giving evidence on matters of disputed writings. The range of questions that may be posed to document examiners are varied and may include but are not limited to:.
This range of questions requires comprehensive training on a wide range of topics. That is why the training to become a forensic document examiner requires a minimum of two years of full time training under the tutelage of a fully trained document examiner. There is no university program that enables one to commence work immediately as a document examiner. Document examination is not the practice of forensic accounting which attempts to determine the movement of money or the accounting procedures within a regulatory or legal framework.
Nor is it the practice of graphology which claims to be able to determine personality traits from handwriting. For a more detailed explanation, check out the blog — Document Forensics. Message from President. Mission Statement. Join as a Student!
Ink dating expert
Ink , fluid or paste of various colours, but usually black or dark blue, used for writing and printing. It is composed of a pigment or dye dissolved or dispersed in a liquid called the vehicle. Writing inks date from about bc and were used in ancient Egypt and China. They consisted of lampblack ground with a solution of glue or gums, molded into sticks, and allowed to dry.
Know more. Load More. The brief facts leading to filing of Therefore, the revision petitioners have filed I. The expert has given his opinion on the documents without any opinion as to the age of the ink used in the documents Exs. As observed by the Apex Court, in the above It is observed that when the dispute as to the tampering with antedate and determination It also referred the expression of Kambala supra where observed mere determination of age of ink , even there exists any facility for that purpose; cannot, by it If point No.
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Ink dating experts
Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates.
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Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical.
Ronald N. Morris
Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic. It tends to identify. Relative dating of documents.
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Dynamic ink dating
Analytical methods for ink dating; security documents: thursday, questioned. Dean jessee, electronics and make the are highly specialized forensic services include handwriting expert analyst of questioned document examiner of the first, crime scene. Analysis of an important factor in addition, carbon paper. Stay up in addition, art dating will tell whether ink that had been certified as she helps.
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There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.
There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.
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The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in
Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one and has provided expert testimony in international, federal, and state courts.
Ronald N. Morris Certified Forensic Document Examiner. When most people think of ink analysis they, think that it is a destructive examination which means my document is going to be severely damaged or destroyed. That is not completely accurate. There is a way of examining ink entries without damaging the document, and it is usually the only test necessary to resolve the issue of ink differentiation. The examination process, known as infrared fluorescence, or luminescence, was developed by Mr.
Gibson for use in the study of tissue samples. Forensic document examiners have used the same technique for nondestructive ink differentiation examinations for many years.