Alpo Honkapohja University of Zurich. Encoding them presents a challenge, because the correspondence between the orthographic sign indicating abbreviation and what the sign stands for is more complex than in non-abbreviated words. The article consists of a review of the terminology used to describe the abbreviations, looking at their history from antiquity to abolition and taxonomies of abbreviations in paleographical handbooks between and It discusses the editorial treatment of abbreviations in printed editions and relates them to the terminology used in the handbooks, offering criticism of it from a linguistic and editorial point of view and how to best represent the abbreviations in TEI P5 mark-up. Traditional taxonomies of abbreviation divide the abbreviations into groups based on the shape of the abbreviating symbol or the position of the abbreviated content. Some of the distinctions, such as the one between contractions and suspensions are not at all relevant for digital encoding. However, the system outlined in this article allows for tagging them in a way which will enable quantitative corpus study of them. Take a foreign language, write it in an unfamiliar script, abbreviating every third word, and you have the compound puzzle that is the medieval Latin manuscript. Learning to understand abbreviations and expanding them correctly is one of the central skills in paleography. Perhaps because the discipline is inherently somewhat conservative Doyle : 5 , much of the terminology currently in use originates in the nineteenth century or earlier.
The Latin Abbreviation A.D.
See Question 6 , below. Please Note: Updated or new information is highlighted. The abbreviations and comment codes are explained below.
‘AD’ in upper case can mean the date stands for a historical date (e.g. the Battle of Hastings The initials ‘BP’ stand for ‘years before present’.
Sales shorthand is incredibly extensive. Compares two versions version A and version B of something to see which one performs better. For example, you can see which subject line performs better by sending two variations to prospects over a set period of time. The one that gets more opens, replies, etc. The financial amount that a customer pays a SaaS company per year based on account subscription agreements. A method of motivating people to buy by gaining their attention, interest, desire for the product, and then inspiring them to take action.
AIDA is often used in direct response ads, and can be surprisingly effective in cold emails. Used most often in businesses where contracts are one year in length. Companies that sell goods and services to other companies. An HR payroll tool, for example, would be a B2B product. The B2B sales process differs from B2C sales in three key ways:.
Businesses that sell their products straight to the consumer.
Medical Abbreviations and Acronyms for Vaccines
When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Latin loanword meaning “approximately, around”. For other uses of “Ca”, see CA.
Est is defined as an abbreviation for established. An example of est is the word that’s next to the date a historical building was assumed to have been built.
Link to this page. MLA Style “Est. In YourDictionary. Bible Esther Estonia Estonian.
Texas Secretary of State
The use of abbreviations and acronyms are acceptable in documenting case histories as long as a third party is able to understand what is written. See Exhibit If the need arises to use an abbreviation not listed in this exhibit, properly identify the abbreviation the first time it is used. Using a company name, such as Acme Building Supply Partnership, can be tedious in a lengthy history.
Historians have often reverted to abbreviations on family charts and documents in C. – abbreviation of latin word “circa” meaning an approximate date or time.
Common Era CE is one of the notation systems for the world’s most widely used calendar era. The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars. The expression has been traced back to , when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin annus aerae nostrae vulgaris ,   and to in English as ” Vulgar [b] Era”. The term “Common Era” can be found in English as early as ,  and became more widely used in the midth century by Jewish religious scholars.
In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications as a culturally neutral term. It is also used by some authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as ” Christ ” and Dominus “Lord” through use of the abbreviation [c] “AD”. The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians.
This way of numbering years became more widespread in Europe with its use by Bede in England in Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus,  and the practice of not using a year zero. The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as ” Vulgar Era” to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law.
The word ‘vulgar’ originally meant ‘of the ordinary people’, with no derogatory associations.
This is the case with writing and saying years. Why do we have more than one word to represent an era? How do we punctuate and capitalize these abbreviations? Is AD ever correct? BCE or B. Well, it depends on which style guide or dictionary you follow.
The most commonly used convention in radiocarbon dating. “Present” referring to the year AD. is the date that the calibration curves were established. It.
The idea of counting years has been around for as long as we have written records, but the idea of syncing up where everyone starts counting is relatively new. Many publications use “C. In the early Middle Ages, the most important calculation, and thus one of the main motivations for the European study of mathematics, was the problem of when to celebrate Easter. The First Council of Nicaea , in A. Computus Latin for computation was the procedure for calculating this most important date, and the computations were set forth in documents known as Easter tables.
It was on one such table that, in A. Dionysius devised his system to replace the Diocletian system, named after the 51st emperor of Rome, who ruled from A. Dionysius never said how he determined the date of Jesus’ birth, but some authors theorize that he used current beliefs about cosmology, planetary conjunctions and the precession of equinoxes to calculate the date.
Dionysius attempted to set A.
Common Era (CE) and Before Common Era (BCE)
A comprehensive ahnentafel gives more than the individual’s name, date and place of birth, christening, marriage, death and burial. It should give biographical and historical commentary for each person listed, as well as footnotes citing the source documents used to prove what is stated. Number one designates the person in the first generation, the one at the beginning of the chart.
Numbers two and three designate the parents of number one and the second generation. Numbers four through seven designate the grandparents of person number one and the third generation.
There is no difference in dating, just in the terms. Anno Domini C.E., the abbreviation for “Common Era” is used to mark time in the same way.
Sometimes genealogy seems to have its own language. Documents often contain phrases or words that are no longer used. Historians have often reverted to abbreviations on family charts and documents in order to include more information. Below is are examples of words you might come across as you research. A more comprehensive version can be found in genealogical dictionaries, which are available in most good book stores.
Glossary You might find the following words in a number of genealogical documents. Decedent: Person who has died. Estate: The total property held by an individual and available after death. Grantee: Recipient of proper either through purchase, gift or request. Grantor: Individual who sells or gives property to another person. Ibid: Same location. Identifies a document that has already been quoted.
101 B2B Sales Acronyms And Abbreviations, Defined
Subj: Abbreviations for phrases, sentences or group of sentences, for use in naval messages relating to transfer and assignment of naval personnel. To provide commands authorized to issue orders a list of approved abbreviated equivalents for certain phrases, sentences, or groups of sentences employed therein, so that the length of messages relating to the transfer or assignment of naval personnel may be reduced.
Reference a canceled JANAP containing authorized abbreviations for use by the joint services, and authorizes the use of well-recognized abbreviations, and abbreviations and short titles which have, through years of joint usage, become self-evident, unequivocal, and universally known. All commands preparing messages relating to the transfer or assignment of Navy personnel should utilize the abbreviations contained in enclosure 1 to the maximum extent possible, except when the need for clarity is an overriding consideration.
Normally, the function of transcribing messages into unabbreviated form should not be assigned to the communications office.
Following is a list of common terms, definitions, and acronyms used within the project Data Date – The point in time that separates actual (historical) data from.
Family tree abbreviations are shortened versions of words or phrases, and are utilised because they are easier to use, especially on a family tree when space can be at a premium. You are sure to find many family tree abbreviations in transcripts of parish registers, census returns, other transcripts, indexes and genealogy books as you conduct family history research. These abbreviations are unique to family history research and genealogy, and may not be found in any other fields or industries.
When you peruse a family tree, you will probably see the letter b. If you use a single letter to signify a surname such as D for Dunkley on your work, you should use the same letter s on every document and also include a description of what it means. This will help other people to understand what you have written and makes it easier to remember the letter s you have used.
These were in existence until local government was re-organised in We can sometimes encounter some terms we are not aware of as we conduct family history research. This glossary of genealogy terms may help us to understand them. Do Family Trees Include Spouses? First Class Honours in History!!
Year to Date (YTD)
In almost all archaeology books and articles the authors use dates. This is the Christian era in the Gregorian calendar, starting from 1 AD as the year in which Christ was believed to have been born. The date was calculated about years after the event, so was a broad estimate. If lower case letters are used, this often means that the date is based on an uncalibrated radiocarbon date see below for date calibrations. Battle of Hastings was in CE. First used almost years ago, it has become especially popular from the late twentieth century to emphasise secularism or sensitivity to non-Christians.
Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space and to avoid distracting the reader by use barracks, depot, fort, Indian agency, military camp, national cemetery (also forest, historic site, s.d.—(sine die) without date. SDI—Strategic.
The Gregorian calendar is the global standard for the measurement of dates. Despite originating in the Western Christian tradition, its use has spread throughout the world and now transcends religious, cultural and linguistic boundaries. As most people are aware, the Gregorian calendar is based on the supposed birth date of Jesus Christ.
Do they mean the same thing, and, if so, which should we use? This article provides an overview of these competing systems. The idea to count years from the birth of Jesus Christ was first proposed in the year by Dionysius Exiguus, a Christian monk. Standardized under the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the system spread throughout Europe and the Christian world during the centuries that followed.
These abbreviations have a shorter history than BC and AD, although they still date from at least the early s. Since the Gregorian calendar has superseded other calendars to become the international standard, members of non-Christian groups may object to the explicitly Christian origins of BC and AD. It is widely accepted that the actual birth of Jesus occurred at least two years before AD 1, and so some argue that explicitly linking years to an erroneous birthdate for Jesus is arbitrary or even misleading.
In , education authorities in Australia were forced to deny that such a change had been planned for national school textbooks amid a similar controversy triggered by media reports. Passions are usually highest among those who see the adoption of a new system as an attempt to write Jesus Christ out of history. They argue that the entire Gregorian Calendar is Christian in nature anyway, so why should we attempt to obscure that fact?
Others ask why such a well-established and functional system should be replaced, arguing that the existence of two competing abbreviations is likely to cause confusion.